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S01E10

Georgia O’Keefe Timeline

  1. Georgia Totto O’Keeffe, November 15, 1887, Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, U.S.
  2. Went to Chicago Art Institute (1905 – 1906)
    1. Taught to copy masters
  3. Moved to NYC after school, so 1906 or 1907
    1. Got into Japanese art and found Arthur Wesley Dow

Arthur Wesley Dow | Smithsonian American Art Museum

Dow had his first solo exhibition in Boston in 1888. At the same time, he began to study the prints of the Japanese artist, Hokusai. He sought out the curator of Japanese art at the Museum, Ernest Fenollosa, who shared his view that art should be both pictorial and decorative and introduced him to the other masters of Sumi ink painting and woodblock techniques. Soon after meeting Fenellosa, Dow developed a method for making woodcuts that reflected his study of Japanese techniques. He found the subjects for his prints mainly on Boston’s North Shore, which he felt were well suited to the Japanese-inspired appreciation of nature that he sought to express.

1903 Following a year of travel abroad, during which he visited Tokyo and Kyōto , he was appointed by Teachers College at Columbia University to teach art and serve as the director of the fine arts department (1904–22). In 1914, after she attended his summer school, the American painter Georgia O’Keeffe enrolled at Teachers College to study with Dow, who had a profound impact on her direction toward abstraction and on her approach to composition.

Dow later wrote additional books on design including “Theory and Practice of Teaching Art and Constructive Art Teaching.” Dow also had an active teaching career. He taught first at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, then at the Art Students League in New York and, finally, at Columbia University’s Teachers College. In his teaching, Dow emphasized abstract concepts of line, notan and color in order to arrive at a synthesis of eastern and western thought. His famous pupils, Max Weber and Georgia O’Keeffe, carried his methods even further into abstraction. One of his most influential pupils, the respected educator and printmaker Pedro Joseph de Lemos , adapted and widely disseminated Dow’s theories in dozens of theoretical and instructional publications (1918-1950) for art schools.

Free Book Download by Arthur Dow

Composition by Arthur W. Dow – Free Ebook

  1. Charcoal abstract drawings

Whitney Museum Georgia O’Keeffe: Abstraction Sept 17, 2009–Jan 17, 2010

Georgia O’Keeffe, Second, Out of My Head, charcoal on Fabriano laid paper, 61 x 47 cm (24 x 18 1/2 in.), 1915, National Gallery of Art

Georgia O’Keefe, No. 5 Special, 1915, National Gallery of Art

Georgia O’Keeffe (1887–1986), Early Abstraction, 1915. Charcoal on paper, 24 × 18 5/8 in. (61 × 47.3 cm). Milwaukee Art Museum

Georgia O’Keeffe (1887–1986), *Red & Orange Streak, 1919. Oil on canvas, 27 × 23 in. (68.6 × 58.4 cm). Philadelphia Museum of Art*

  1. Brought nature and emotion and curves to cubism
  2. Becomes part of American Modernism movement, America’s kind of modernizing of old world

EXAMPLES: Max Weber, Marsden Hartley, Andrew Dasburg, Stuart Davis, Oscar Bluemner, Arthur Dove

  1. Friend sends charcoal drawings to Alfred Stieglitz
    1. In 1916, he creates an exhibition for her in NY
    2. She gets recognition
    3. She marries Stieglitz in 1924
  2. She’s still a loner, a rebel, travels to teach and paint
    1. Canyons of Texas
    2. Forests of South Carolina
    3. Desert of New Mexico
      1. Develops handmade color cards, she creates her own bespoke colors, so now she has her own language, her own font if you will to tell her stories
  3. Stieglitz and his jabroni friends are fascinated by Freudian psychology, so all they can think about is vaginas

When you have a hammer, everything looks like a nail to those guys

  1. She’s painting NY and they’re telling her, “male artists paintings of NYC haven’t been well received, what makes you, a woman, think that you can do any better?”

Radiator Building – Night, New York

Above: ©Georgia O’Keeffe, 1927

New York Street with Moon

Above: ©Georgia O’Keeffe Museum, VEGAP, Madrid

The Shelton with Sunspots, N.Y.

Above” © 2018 Georgia O’Keeffe Museum/ Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

  1. O’Keefe rejects this bullshit
  2. Georgia goes to Hawaii in 1939

In Hawaii, Georgia O’Keeffe Found a Curious New Way to Look at Nature. An Immersive Show Lets You Mirror Her Journey]

Georgia O’Keeffe wasn’t particularly interested in visiting Hawaii, but when she was offered an all-expenses paid trip there in 1939, she couldn’t turn it down. Though the artist only spent nine weeks visiting the island paradise, tasked with making two ads for Dole pineapples, she completed no fewer than 20 paintings, an oft-forgotten body of work that took center stage at the New York Botanical Garden in the Summer of 2018

Above: Georgia O’Keeffe, Hibiscus with Plumeria (1939). Courtesy of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, © 2018 Georgia O’Keeffe Museum/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

Georgia O’Keeffe, Waterfall, No. I, ‘Īao Valley, Maui (1939). Courtesy of the Memphis Brooks Museum of Art, Memphis, Tennessee © 2018 Georgia O’Keeffe Museum/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

Georgia O’Keeffe, Heliconia, Crab’s Claw Ginger (1939). Courtesy of Sharon Twigg-Smith, © 2018 Georgia O’Keeffe Museum/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.

Georgia O’Keeffe, Black Lava Bridge, Hāna Coast, No. 1, 939 (Oil on canvas, Honolulu Museum of Art, Gift of The Georgia O’Keeffe Foundation, 1994 (7892.1))

  1. Stieglitz dies in 1946, O’Keefe moves to New Mexico
    1. She called it her spiritual home
    2. John Bruce Hamilton, newly divorced potter, taga along with friends to help fix her plumbing, just to have the chance to meet her
      1. He asks if she needs help, she’s annoyed, but gives him a chance; he packs crates for her
      2. Thus begins a close friendship for 14 years, he was to be sole heir to her 70mm fortune
        1. Family came out of the woodwork, he settled with the family keeping Ghost Ranch (including all the possessions therein), 6 paintings, some drawings and watercolors
          1. In 2020, right before COVID, he puts her personal effects up for auction
            1. It’s a little bit of a shame he didn’t just donate them to the O’Keefe museum, she was a teacher herself, so it’s hard to imagine she would have been terribly thrilled
  2. Keeps painting until she died in 1986 at age 98
  3. 1997, the Museum opened in Santa Fe
  4. In 2014 one of her works became the most expensive painting by a female artist ever sold at auction.

Georgia O’Keeffe, Jimson Weed/White Flower No. 1 (1932). Estimate $10/15 million, Sold for $44,405,000 at Sotheby’s American Art sale on November 20, 2014. (Sotheby’s New York)

Georgia O’Keefe Fashion

Georgia O’Keeffe was born on November 15, 1887, in Sun Prairie, Wisconsin and studied at the Art Institute of Chicago. Photographer Alfred Stieglitz gave O’Keefe her first gallery show in 1916 and the couple married in 1924. O’Keeffe moved to New Mexico after her husband’s death and was inspired by the landscape to create numerous well-known paintings. Georgia O’Keeffe died on March 6, 1986.

Tate Modernist: How Georgia O’Keeffe shaped feminist style | Fashion | The Guardian

The Tate Modern exhibition, which opens on Wednesday, aims to exorcise the Freudian (and frankly entry-level) readings of her flower paintings (flowers painted by women are vaginas) pushed by male critics and, it seems, at the behest of her husband, photographer Alfred Stieglitz. Stieglitz was a great photographer but was equally well-versed in the world of art dealership and knew what would sell. O’Keeffe was torn, sometimes siding with Stieglitz, but often not;

in 1976, she refused to be part of an exhibition celebrating women in art in Los Angeles because she didn’t want to be seen through a gendered lens – like Louise Bourgeois, she reacted to a legacy that had been outlined by men. But she knew she was good. Her work sold

Eventually, her style morphed into more of a uniform: hyper-minimal kimonos, wide-lapelled shirts and cigarette trousers for the most part in black or white. If Stieglitz acted like some sort of career svengali, then at least O’Keeffe had creative control over her styling – the contrast between her monochrome look and the bright, explosive canvases acted as a sort of billboard. It was a move not dissimilar to the French artist Niki de Saint Phalle, who adopted a similar get-up in the 1950s and 60s: all white polonecks and tight trousers. These women were the black crows of the art world: blank and undistracting, focused on promoting their work rather than their gender. It is worth noting that much of O’Keeffe’s inspiration came from feminist writer Charlotte Perkins Gilman, who advocated “social and domestic reform”, which included reformation of gendered clothing – that boys and girls should dress the same.

O’Keeffe’s style shifted towards something more feminised towards the end of her life – it’s reported that she had 26 wraparound dresses hanging in her wardrobe, above rows of Salvatore Ferragamo shoes. This was the public O’Keeffe who realised she probably had to kowtow to social mores on one level by wearing a skirt.

News

News Item 1

George Clooney Calls for the Return of the Parthenon Marbles to Greece

George Clooney called again for the return of the Parthenon Marbles to Greece in a recent communication with Janet Suzman, chairwoman of the British Committee for the Reunification of the Parthenon Sculptures , a Greek daily reported on Saturday.

BCRPM – PM Johnson’s asked about the plea for the reunification of the Parthenon Marbles

March 12, 2021: In today’s exclusive interview with the Greek daily newspaper Ta Nea , when asked about the Parthenon Marbles, British PM Johnson said: “I understand the strong feelings of the Greek people – and indeed Prime Minister Mitsotakis – on the issue. But the UK Government has a firm longstanding position on the sculptures, which is that they were legally acquired by Lord Elgin under the appropriate laws of the time and have been legally owned by the British Museum’s Trustees since their acquisition.”

BCRPM – History of the Marbles

Thomas Bruce, the 7th Earl of Elgin, British Ambassador to the Sublime Porte of Constantinople (Istanbul) the seat of the Ottoman Empire at the turn of the 19th century, having stripped down the monuments of the Acropolis from 1801 – 1804 brought back to London one whole caryatid from the Erechtheion, huge pedimental figures, friezes, metopes and parts of columns from the Parthenon and other pieces representing over half of all the surviving sculptures from the monuments.

These were sold to the British Government in 1816, after the Select Committee of the House of Commons had debated the issue and considered the method of their acquisition, their value and the importance of buying them as public property. At the conclusion of this procedure, in spite of some serious misgivings expressed by a number of MPs and witnesses, especially whether a British Ambassador was justified in using his position to acquire antiquities from the Government he was accredited to, Elgin won the day. Parliament decided the sculptures be bought at the recommended price of £35,000.00, that they remain together and be displayed at the British Museum which maintains to this day that the so-called ‘ Elgin Marbles’ are legally and properly held by it. Scholars have now seriously disputed this claim in the light of recent research and findings especially concerning the validity of the so-called firman.

Some apologists of the British Museum have claimed that the British used the word “firman” to describe any official letter issued in the Ottoman Empire. That maybe so, but that suggests that the legal weight of a proper firman allowing Elgin’s men to enter the Acropolis has never existed. Instead it appears that an obliging Vizier simply sent a letter of introduction giving instructions for Elgin’s men to be allowed to enter the Acropolis with specific guidelines for acting there. Guidelines that were most emphatically never followed.

The British Committee for the Reunification of the Parthenon Sculptures

This is a group of prominent Brits campaigning for the return of the Marbles to Greece: The idea to set up a British Committee for the Restitution of the Parthenon Marbles came from James Cubitt, a distinguished British architect. He firmly believed that the Parthenon Marbles, as integral architectural members of a unique and internationally valuable monument, should be assembled together in a museum as close to the Acropolis as possible.

News Item 2

News Item 2 comes to us from listener Joshington Bentavious Cranium III, esq.

AKA: @kleptolovestory

Paris Louvre recovers 16th-century armour stolen nearly 40 years ago | France | The Guardian

Thomas Samson/Getty

The armour and helmet are thought to have been made in Milan between 1560 and 1580. They were donated to the Louvre in 1922 by the Rothschild family.

A military antiques expert alerted police after being called in to give advice regarding an inheritance in Bordeaux in January and becoming suspicious about the luxurious helmet and body armour in the family’s collection. Police later identified the items from a database of stolen artworks as having been taken from the Louvre on 31 May 1983, in circumstances that remain a mystery. Bordeaux prosecutors are now investigating how they ended up in the family’s estate.

I was certain we would see them reappear one day because they are such singular objects. But I could never have imagined that it would work out so well – that they would be in France and still together,” said Philippe Malgouyres, the Louvre’s head of heritage artworks, on Wednesday. “They are prestige weapons, made with virtuosity, sort of the equivalent of a luxury car today. In the 16th century, weapons became works of very luxurious art. Armour became an ornament that had nothing to do with its use,” he said.

There are 100,000 objects on France’s database of global stolen artworks, with 900 added last year alone. According to Jean-Luc Martinez, the president-director of the Louvre, the last theft from the world’s most-visited museum was in 1998, a portrait by 19th-century French artist Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot.

News Item 3

How it Started

‘Whodunnit?’: The mysterious case of Magashule’s missing painting

Elias Sekgobelo “Ace” Magashule (born 3 November 1959 at Tumahole, Parys) is a South African politician and an anti-apartheid activist who is the current Secretary General of the African National Congress. He served as the Premier of the Free State, one of South Africa’s nine provinces, from 2009 until 2018. Magashule has been the subject of many journalistic investigations alleging his involvement in corrupt activities. He was arrested in November 2020 and awaits trial for a “scheme designed to defraud and steal monies” from the Free State Department of Agriculture.

The Pierneef painting was displayed in Magashule’s office at the OR Tambo Building, in Bloemfontein, and went missing in March 2018 after Magashule vacated the office following his promotion to the upper echelons of the ANC.

Jacobus Hendrik Pierneef

Collection of rare Pierneef paintings under the hammer YouTube

Jacobus Hendrik Pierneef | Famous Paintings

  • Born 13 August 1886 in Pretoria, South African Republic
  • Died 4 October 1957 (aged 71), Pretoria, South Africa

Jacobus Hendrik (Henk) Pierneef (usually referred to as Pierneef) (13 August 1886 Pretoria – 4 October 1957 Pretoria),[1] was a South African landscape artist, generally considered to be one of the best of the old South African masters. His distinctive style is widely recognised and his work was greatly influenced by the South African landscape. Most of his landscapes were of the South African highveld (The Highveld (Afrikaans: Hoëveld) is the portion of the South African inland plateau, home to some of the country’s most important commercial farming areas, as well as its largest concentration of metropolitan centres,) which provided a lifelong source of inspiration for him. Pierneef’s style was to reduce and simplify the landscape to geometric structures, using flat planes, lines and colour to present the harmony and order in nature. This resulted in formalised, ordered and often-monumental view of the South African landscape, uninhabited and with dramatic light and colour.

Die Kremetartboom (Baobab Tree) JACOBUS HENDRIK PIERNEEF, 1934

Pierneef, Hardekoolbome – Bosveld (1945)

What Happened Next

Ace Magashule’s former bodyguard gets 15 years in jail for stealing Pierneef painting

ANC secretary-general Ace Magashule’s former bodyguard has been sentenced to 15 years imprisonment for stealing an R 8 million painting. Ricardo Mettler, who was Magashule’s bodyguard during his term as the Free State premier, was found guilty on four charges relating to the Pierneef painting.

In the Bloemfontein High Court on Wednesday, Judge Soma Naidoo sentenced Mettler to an additional 15 years for money laundering for offering the painting to a Chinese businessman as a guarantee for a loan, said the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA).

“The court added another 15 years for fraud. He pretended that the painting was donated to him by Magashule, and that it legally belonged to him. In addition, Judge Naidoo sentenced Mettler to 12 months for making a false statement to the police in which he said Magashule gave him the painting,” said NPA spokesperson Phaladi Shuping.

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Pick of the Week

Arthur Wesley Dow, Ipswich Prints: Lily, 1901/published 1902, photo-mechanical relief reproduction on paper, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Mrs. F. F. Reinert, 1976.96.2.5

Photomechanical Reproduction:

It is not unique, nor is it handmade. There may be many exact copies of this image. These are printed in ink, historically by a printing press. Reproductions are never considered original works of art and the artist is not involved in the production process.

It is possible to wrongly identify images made using photomechanical reproduction for any printing technique. However, there are a couple of ways you may be able to tell at home, using household items to closely examine a piece.

The telltale indication that an image is a photomechanical reproduction is a repeated pattern of tiny dots, which can usually be seen using a magnifying glass. If you are not sure, examine a picture in a magazine or newspaper and compare it for the same pattern of dots.

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